Micro-Optical Initiation of Nanoenergetic Materials Using a Temporally Tailored Variable-Pulse-Width Laser
Nanoenergetic materials can provide a significant enhancement in the rate of energy release as compared with microscale materials. The energy-release rate is strongly dependent not only on the primary particle size but also on the level of agglomeration, which is of particular interest for the inclusion of nanoenergetics in practical systems where agglomeration is desired or difficult to avoid. Unlike studies of nanoparticles or nanometer-size aggregates, which can be conducted with ultrafast or nanosecond lasers assuming uniform heating, microscale aggregates of nanoparticles are more sensitive to the thermophysical time scale of the heating process. To allow control over the rate of energy deposition during laser initiation studies, a custom, temporally tailored, continuously variable-pulse-width (VPW) laser was employed for radiative heating of nanoenergetic materials. The laser consisted of a continuous-wave master oscillator, which could be sliced into desired pulses, and a chain of amplifiers to reach high peak power. The slicer allowed control over the time profile of the pulses via the combination of an arbitrary waveform generator and acousto-optic modulator (AOM). The effects of utilizing flat-top or ramped laser pulses with durations from 100 ns to 150 ls and energies up to 20 mJ at 1064 nm were investigated, along with a broad range of heating rates for single particles or nanoparticle aggregates up to 100-lm diameter. In combination with an optical microscope, laser heating of aggregates consisting of 70-nm diameter Al nanoparticles in a Teflon matrix showed significant dependence on the heating profile due to the sensitivity of nanoenergetic materials to heating rate. The ability to control the temporal pulse-intensity profile leads to greater control over the effects of ablative heating and the resulting shockwave propagation. Hence, flexible laser-pulse profiles allow the investigation of energetic properties for a wide size range of metal/metal-oxide nanoparticles, aggregates, and composites.