Implications of a GATT Agreement for World Commodity Markets, 1992-2000
A dynamic multicountry, multicommodity model is used to evaluate the impact of a moderate General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) agreement. The terms of this agreement are as follows. 1) Export subsidy quantities (using annual and price wedges) are reduced by 50 percent from the 1986-88 average by 1996. 2) Import restrictions are tariffed and reduced by 33 percent form the 1986-88 average by 1996 (tariffs are measured by using an annual price wedge approach). 3) Internal supports, as measured by the aggregate measure of support (AMS), are reduced by 33 percent from the 1986-88 average by 1996 (fixed reference prices are used). The results indicate that the U.S. producers would benefit substantially from the agreement because the United States has made or will have made many of the cuts required by this moderate agreement. The results also indicate that the use of quantity in lieu of expenditure restrictions results in more liberalized world markets because the price signals required to reduce export quantities can force internal prices to equal those in world markets.