Sensing Dipole Fields at Atomic Steps with Combined Scanning Tunneling and Force Microscopy
Is Version Of
The electric field of dipoles localized at the atomic steps of metal surfaces due to the Smoluchowski effect were measured from the electrostatic force exerted on the biased tip of a scanning tunneling microscope. By varying the tip-sample bias the contribution of the step dipole was separated from changes in the force due to van der Waals and polarization forces. Combined with electrostatic calculations, the method was used to determine the local dipole moment in steps of different heights on Au(111) and on the twofold surface of an Al-Ni-Co decagonal quasicrystal.
This article is from Physical Review Letters 95, no. 13 (2005): 136802, doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.95.136802.