Biodiversity Increases the Resistance of Ecosystem Productivity to Climate Extremes

Date
2015-10-01
Authors
Isbell, Forest
Craven, Dylan
Connolly, John
Loreau, Michael
Schmid, Bernhard
Beierkuhnlein, Carl
Bezemer, T. Martin
Bonin, Catherine
Bruelheide, Helge
de Luca, Enrica
Ebeling, Anne
Griffin, John
Guo, Qinfeng
Hautier, Yann
Hector, Andy
Jentsch, Anke
Kreyling, Jürgen
Lanta, Vojtěch
Manning, Pete
Meyer, Sebastian
Mori, Akira
Naeem, Shahid
Niklaus, Pascal
Polley, H. Wayne
Reich, Peter
Roscher, Christiane
Seabloom, Eric
Smith, Melinda
Thakur, Madhav
Tilman, David
Tracy, Benjamin
van der Putten, Wim
van Ruijven, Jasper
Weigelt, Alexandra
Weisser, Wolfgang
Wilsey, Brian
Eisenhauer, Nico
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Abstract

It remains unclear whether biodiversity buffers ecosystems against climate extremes, which are becoming increasingly frequent worldwide1. Early results suggested that the ecosystem productivity of diverse grassland plant communities was more resistant, changing less during drought, and more resilient, recovering more quickly after drought, than that of depauperate communities2. However, subsequent experimental tests produced mixed results3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13. Here we use data from 46 experiments that manipulated grassland plant diversity to test whether biodiversity provides resistance during and resilience after climate events. We show that biodiversity increased ecosystem resistance for a broad range of climate events, including wet or dry, moderate or extreme, and brief or prolonged events. Across all studies and climate events, the productivity of low-diversity communities with one or two species changed by approximately 50% during climate events, whereas that of high-diversity communities with 16–32 species was more resistant, changing by only approximately 25%. By a year after each climate event, ecosystem productivity had often fully recovered, or overshot, normal levels of productivity in both high- and low-diversity communities, leading to no detectable dependence of ecosystem resilience on biodiversity. Our results suggest that biodiversity mainly stabilizes ecosystem productivity, and productivity-dependent ecosystem services, by increasing resistance to climate events. Anthropogenic environmental changes that drive biodiversity loss thus seem likely to decrease ecosystem stability14, and restoration of biodiversity to increase it, mainly by changing the resistance of ecosystem productivity to climate events.

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This article is from Nature (2015): 15374, doi:10.1038/nature15374.

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