Physical and Thermal Properties of Chia, Kañiwa, Triticale and Farro as a Function of Moisture Content

Thumbnail Image
Suleiman, Rashid
Xie, Kun
Major Professor
Committee Member
Journal Title
Journal ISSN
Volume Title
Research and Teaching Assistant
Rosentrater, Kurt
Research Projects
Organizational Units
Organizational Unit
Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering

Since 1905, the Department of Agricultural Engineering, now the Department of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering (ABE), has been a leader in providing engineering solutions to agricultural problems in the United States and the world. The department’s original mission was to mechanize agriculture. That mission has evolved to encompass a global view of the entire food production system–the wise management of natural resources in the production, processing, storage, handling, and use of food fiber and other biological products.

In 1905 Agricultural Engineering was recognized as a subdivision of the Department of Agronomy, and in 1907 it was recognized as a unique department. It was renamed the Department of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering in 1990. The department merged with the Department of Industrial Education and Technology in 2004.

Dates of Existence

Historical Names

  • Department of Agricultural Engineering (1907–1990)

Related Units

Journal Issue
Is Version Of

The knowledge of physical and thermal properties in cereals, grains and oilseeds establishes an essential engineering tool for the design of equipment, storage structures, and processes. The physical properties and thermal properties for Chia, Kañiwa, Farro and Triticale grains were investigated at three levels of moisture content: 10 %, 15 % and 20 % (d.b). Physical properties determined where 1000 seed weight, seed dimensions, arithmetic and geometric mean diameter, surface area, volume sphericity and aspect ratio. The result shows 1000 seed weight increased linearly with moisture content from 2.0 to 3.5 g for chai, 2.5 to 4.0 g for Kañiwa, 42.7 to 48.3 g for Farro and 51.0 to 53.7 g for Triticale. Likewise, the bulk and true density decreased as moisture content increased. The porosity for Farro and Triticale increased from 38.71% to 44.17 %, 40.37 % to 44.65 % respectively as moisture increased from 10 to 20 %. The angle of repose for Chia, Kañiwa, Farro and Triticale all increased as moisture content increased. In general, the values of L, a* and b* increased with moisture content. Thermal properties showed a very good correlation to moisture content. The negative relationship was observed for the specific heat capacity and thermal conductivity while the thermal diffusivity had a positive linear increase trend with moisture content. This study showed that physical and thermal properties varied from grain to grain as a function of moisture content. The findings of this study will broaden the knowledge of physical properties of Chia, Kañiwa, Triticale and Farro and provide useful data for industries and researchers.


This proceeding is from 2015 ASABE Annual International Meeting, Paper No. 152189412, pages 1-33 (doi: 10.13031/aim.20152189412). St. Joseph, Mich.: ASABE. Posted with permission.

Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 UTC 2015