Echinacea in infection

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2008-02-01
Authors
LaLone, Carlie
Wu, Lankun
Bae, Jaehoon
Solco, Avery
Murphy, Patricia
Leng, Qiang
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Widrlechner, Mark
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Birt, Diane
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Wurtele, Eve
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Kraus, George
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Agronomy

The Department of Agronomy seeks to teach the study of the farm-field, its crops, and its science and management. It originally consisted of three sub-departments to do this: Soils, Farm-Crops, and Agricultural Engineering (which became its own department in 1907). Today, the department teaches crop sciences and breeding, soil sciences, meteorology, agroecology, and biotechnology.

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The Department of Agronomy was formed in 1902. From 1917 to 1935 it was known as the Department of Farm Crops and Soils.

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  • Department of Farm Crops and Soils (1917–1935)

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Genetics, Development and Cell Biology

The Department of Genetics, Development, and Cell Biology seeks to teach subcellular and cellular processes, genome dynamics, cell structure and function, and molecular mechanisms of development, in so doing offering a Major in Biology and a Major in Genetics.

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The Department of Genetics, Development, and Cell Biology was founded in 2005.

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Chemistry

The Department of Chemistry seeks to provide students with a foundation in the fundamentals and application of chemical theories and processes of the lab. Thus prepared they me pursue careers as teachers, industry supervisors, or research chemists in a variety of domains (governmental, academic, etc).

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The Department of Chemistry was founded in 1880.

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Horticulture
The Department of Horticulture was originally concerned with landscaping, garden management and marketing, and fruit production and marketing. Today, it focuses on fruit and vegetable production; landscape design and installation; and golf-course design and management.
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Abstract

Ongoing studies have developed strategies for identifying key bioactive compounds and chemical profiles in Echinacea with the goal of improving its human health benefits. Antiviral and antiinflammatory–antipain assays have targeted various classes of chemicals responsible for these activities. Analysis of polar fractions of E. purpurea extracts showed the presence of antiviral activity, with evidence suggesting that polyphenolic compounds other than the known HIV inhibitor, cichoric acid, may be involved. Antiinflammatory activity differed by species, with E. sanguinea having the greatest activity and E. angustifolia, E. pallida, and E. simulata having somewhat less. Fractionation and studies with pure compounds indicate that this activity is explained, at least in part, by the alkamide constituents. Ethanol extracts from Echinacea roots had potent activity as novel agonists of TRPV1, a mammalian pain receptor reported as an integrator of inflammatory pain and hyperalgesia and a prime therapeutic target for analgesic and antiinflammatory drugs. One fraction from E. purpurea ethanol extract was bioactive in this system. Interestingly, the antiinflammatory compounds identified to inhibit prostaglandin E2 production differed from those involved in TRPV1 receptor activation.

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This article is from The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 87 (2008): 488S.

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