Root to shoot and carbon to nitrogen ratios of maize and soybean crops in the US Midwest

dc.contributor.author Ordonez, Raziel
dc.contributor.author Archontoulis, Sotirios
dc.contributor.author Castellano, Michael
dc.contributor.author Martinez-Feria, Rafael
dc.contributor.author Hatfield, Jerry
dc.contributor.author Wright, Emily
dc.contributor.author Castellano, Michael
dc.contributor.department Agronomy
dc.date 2020-07-27T14:09:42.000
dc.date.accessioned 2021-02-24T19:25:05Z
dc.date.available 2021-02-24T19:25:05Z
dc.date.issued 2020-01-01
dc.description.abstract <p>Root traits are important to crop functioning, yet there is little information about how root traits vary with shoot traits. Using a standardized protocol, we collected 160 soil cores (0−210 cm) across 10 locations, three years and multiple cropping systems (crops x management practices) in Iowa, USA. Maximum root biomass ranged from 1.2 to 2.8 Mg ha−1 in maize and 0.86 to 1.93 Mg ha−1 in soybean. The root:shoot (R:S) ratio ranged from 0.04 to 0.13 in maize and 0.09 to 0.26 in soybean. Maize produced 27 % more root biomass, 20 % longer roots, with 35 % higher carbon to nitrogen (C:N) ratio than soybean. In contrast, soybean had a 47 % greater R:S ratio than maize. The maize R:S ratio values were substantially lower than literature values, possibly due to differences in measurement methodologies, genotypes, and environment. In particular, we sampled at plant maturity rather than crop harvest to minimize the effect of senescence on measurements of shoots and roots. Maximum shoot biomass explained 70 % of the variation in root biomass, and the R:S ratio was positively correlated with the root C:N measured in both crops. Easily-measured environmental variables including temperature and precipitation were weakly associated with root traits. These results begin to fill an important knowledge gap that will enable better estimates of belowground net primary productivity and soil organic matter dynamics. Ultimately, the ability to explain variation in root mass production can be used to improve C and N budgets and modeling studies from crop to regional scales.</p>
dc.description.comments <p>This article is published as Ordóñez, Raziel A., Sotirios V. Archontoulis, Rafael Martinez-Feria, Jerry L. Hatfield, Emily E. Wright, and Michael J. Castellano. "Root to shoot and carbon to nitrogen ratios of maize and soybean crops in the US Midwest." <em>European Journal of Agronomy</em> 120 (2020): 126130. doi: <a href="https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eja.2020.126130" target="_blank" title="Persistent link using digital object identifier">10.1016/j.eja.2020.126130</a>.</p>
dc.format.mimetype application/pdf
dc.identifier archive/lib.dr.iastate.edu/agron_pubs/666/
dc.identifier.articleid 1716
dc.identifier.contextkey 18665692
dc.identifier.s3bucket isulib-bepress-aws-west
dc.identifier.submissionpath agron_pubs/666
dc.identifier.uri https://dr.lib.iastate.edu/handle/20.500.12876/93065
dc.language.iso en
dc.source.bitstream archive/lib.dr.iastate.edu/agron_pubs/666/2020_Castellano_RootShoot.pdf|||Sat Jan 15 01:26:18 UTC 2022
dc.source.uri 10.1016/j.eja.2020.126130
dc.subject.disciplines Agriculture
dc.subject.disciplines Agronomy and Crop Sciences
dc.subject.disciplines Soil Science
dc.subject.keywords Zea mays
dc.subject.keywords Glycine max
dc.subject.keywords Root traits
dc.subject.keywords Soil profile
dc.subject.keywords Carbon
dc.subject.keywords Nitrogen uptake
dc.subject.keywords Water table
dc.subject.keywords Irrigation
dc.title Root to shoot and carbon to nitrogen ratios of maize and soybean crops in the US Midwest
dc.type article
dc.type.genre article
dspace.entity.type Publication
relation.isAuthorOfPublication 1f34589d-68d7-4578-adfb-28caa0e9d604
relation.isOrgUnitOfPublication fdd5c06c-bdbe-469c-a38e-51e664fece7a
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