Competing with Machines for Jobs? Evaluation of Labor-Capital Substitution in the U.S.
Apparel Industry by Job Occupations from 2002-2011
The U.S. apparel industry (North American Industry Classification System, NAICS, 315) experienced a sharp decline of employment from 333 thousand in 2002 to only 152 thousand by the end of 2011 (BLS, 2012). The traditional view holds import competition mainly responsible for the job shrinkage (Dickerson, 1999); however, such a view has raised questions under the new circumstances.