Waste to Energy: Solid Fuel Production from Biogas Plant Digestate and Sewage Sludge by Torrefaction-Process Kinetics, Fuel Properties, and Energy Balance

dc.contributor.author Świechowski, Kacper
dc.contributor.author Hnat, Martyna
dc.contributor.author Stępień, Paweł
dc.contributor.author Stegenta-Dąbrowska, Sylwia
dc.contributor.author Koziel, Jacek
dc.contributor.author Kugler, Szymon
dc.contributor.author Koziel, Jacek
dc.contributor.author Białowiec, Andrzej
dc.contributor.department Food Science and Human Nutrition
dc.contributor.department Civil, Construction and Environmental Engineering
dc.contributor.department Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering
dc.contributor.department Toxicology
dc.date 2020-06-18T22:51:16.000
dc.date.accessioned 2020-06-29T22:37:11Z
dc.date.available 2020-06-29T22:37:11Z
dc.date.copyright Wed Jan 01 00:00:00 UTC 2020
dc.date.issued 2020-06-18
dc.description.abstract <p>Sustainable solutions are needed to manage increased energy demand and waste generation. Renewable energy production from abundant sewage sludge (SS) and digestate (D) from biogas is feasible. Concerns about feedstock contamination (heavy metals, pharmaceuticals, antibiotics, and antibiotic-resistant bacteria) in SS and D limits the use (e.g., agricultural) of these carbon-rich resources. Low temperature thermal conversion that results in carbonized solid fuel (CSF) has been proposed as sustainable waste utilization. The aim of the research was to investigate the feasibility of CSF production from SS and D via torrefaction. The CSF was produced at 200~300 °C (interval of 20 °C) for 20~60 min (interval 20 min). The torrefaction kinetics and CSF fuel properties were determined. Next, the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) of SS and D torrefaction were used to build models of energy demand for torrefaction. Finally, the evaluation of the energy balance of CSF production from SS and D was completed. The results showed that torrefaction improved the D-derived CSF’s higher heating value (HHV) up to 11% (p < 0.05), whereas no significant HHV changes for SS were observed. The torrefied D had the highest HHV of 20 MJ∙kg-1 under 300 °C and 30 min, (the curve fitted value from the measured time periods) compared to HHV = 18 MJ∙kg−1 for unprocessed D. The torrefied SS had the highest HHV = 14.8 MJ∙kg−1 under 200 °C and 20 min, compared to HHV 14.6 MJ∙kg−1 for raw SS. An unwanted result of the torrefaction was an increase in ash content in CSF, up to 40% and 22% for SS and D, respectively. The developed model showed that the torrefaction of dry SS and D could be energetically self-sufficient. Generating CSF with the highest HHV requires raw feedstock containing ~15.4 and 45.9 MJ∙kg−1 for SS and D, respectively (assuming that part of feedstock is a source of energy for the process). The results suggest that there is a potential to convert biogas D to CSF to provide renewable fuel for, e.g., plants currently fed/co-fed with municipal solid waste.</p>
dc.description.comments <p>This article is published as Świechowski, Kacper, Martyna Hnat, Paweł Stępień, Sylwia Stegenta-Dąbrowska, Szymon Kugler, Jacek A. Koziel, and Andrzej Białowiec. "Waste to Energy: Solid Fuel Production from Biogas Plant Digestate and Sewage Sludge by TorrefactionProcess Kinetics, Fuel Properties, and Energy Balance." 13, no. 12 <em>Energies</em> (2020): 3161. DOI: <a href="https://doi.org/10.3390/en13123161" target="_blank">10.3390/en13123161</a>. Posted with permission.</p>
dc.format.mimetype application/pdf
dc.identifier archive/lib.dr.iastate.edu/abe_eng_pubs/1137/
dc.identifier.articleid 2422
dc.identifier.contextkey 18162483
dc.identifier.s3bucket isulib-bepress-aws-west
dc.identifier.submissionpath abe_eng_pubs/1137
dc.identifier.uri https://dr.lib.iastate.edu/handle/20.500.12876/842
dc.language.iso en
dc.source.bitstream archive/lib.dr.iastate.edu/abe_eng_pubs/1137/2020_KozielJacek_WasteEnergy.pdf|||Fri Jan 14 18:48:32 UTC 2022
dc.source.uri 10.3390/en13123161
dc.subject.disciplines Bioresource and Agricultural Engineering
dc.subject.disciplines Energy Systems
dc.subject.disciplines Environmental Engineering
dc.subject.disciplines Sustainability
dc.subject.keywords renewable energy
dc.subject.keywords sewage sludge
dc.subject.keywords biogas digestate
dc.subject.keywords waste to energy
dc.subject.keywords waste to carbon
dc.subject.keywords circular economy
dc.subject.keywords sustainability
dc.subject.keywords carbonized solid fuel
dc.title Waste to Energy: Solid Fuel Production from Biogas Plant Digestate and Sewage Sludge by Torrefaction-Process Kinetics, Fuel Properties, and Energy Balance
dc.type article
dc.type.genre article
dspace.entity.type Publication
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