Properties of Sugary-2 Maize Starch: Influence of Exotic Background.

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1995-07-01
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Campbell, M. R.
Pollak, LInda
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White, Pamela
University Professor Emeritus
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Agronomy

The Department of Agronomy seeks to teach the study of the farm-field, its crops, and its science and management. It originally consisted of three sub-departments to do this: Soils, Farm-Crops, and Agricultural Engineering (which became its own department in 1907). Today, the department teaches crop sciences and breeding, soil sciences, meteorology, agroecology, and biotechnology.

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The Department of Agronomy was formed in 1902. From 1917 to 1935 it was known as the Department of Farm Crops and Soils.

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1902–present

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  • Department of Farm Crops and Soils (1917–1935)

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Center for Crops Utilization Research
In the 1980s a crisis existed in American farming—a crisis of overproduction, underutilization, and decreasing international market share for raw commodities. Also, the United States’ growing dependence on imported oil and long-term forecasts for increasing oil prices put America at risk. To address this crisis, Center for Crops Utilization Research (CCUR) was established in 1984 through a special appropriation from the Iowa legislature. The center was tasked to respond to the urgent need to improve America’s agricultural competitiveness. Four decades later, there are new opportunities to increase demand for Iowa’s crops. Consumer demand is increasing for new healthful food ingredients, biobased alternatives to petroleum-based products, and sustainable and environmentally friendly industrial processes. The rapid advancement of new food processing technologies and industrial biotechnology enable those demands to be met in an economically viable way. While CCUR’s core mission of increasing demand for Iowa crops remains relevant, the center is also taking these opportunities to grow our connection with companies and entrepreneurs to help them to test, troubleshoot, and optimize their ideas in an industrial-friendly setting.
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Abstract

Genetic modifiers of maize (Zea mays L.) starch thermal properties were examined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Sugary- 2 (su2) kernels from segregating ears were identified based on textural appearance of starches following crosses between an exotic maize accession with the inbred OH43 homozygous for the su2 allele (OH43 su2). Two exotic maize accessions, PI213768 and PI451692, were used. Germs retained from su2 kernels were used to produce an F2 population of su2 plants containing 50% exotic germ plasm. With few exceptions, F2 ears from the populations were homozygous for the su2 allele. Significant (P less than or equal to 0.05) differences were seen between the exotic populations and OH43 su2 for gelatinization onset temperature (To), range (RN), enthalpy (deltaH), and retrogradation (%R). The number of DSC values with significant within-population variations was greater among F2 ears within the exotic populations than among ears within the inbred line OH43 su2. Standard deviations for DSC values were consistently greater for exotic su2 populations than for those of OH43 su2. Also, the population PI213768 su2 differed greatly from OH43 su2 for mean values of To, RN, deltaH, and %R (52.8 C, 13.4 C, 1.5 cal/g, and 34.5%, respectively) when compared to those of OH43 su2 (54.6 C, 10.6 C, 1.3 cal/g, and 29%, respectively). Results from this study indicate that examining the texture of starches from single kernels may be used to identify and develop populations homozygous for the su2 allele. In addition, the increased variability for DSC values within populations containing 50% exotic germ plasm suggest that genetic modifiers might be used to alter thermal properties and, possibly, functional properties of su2 starch.

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This article is from Cereal Chemistry, July 1995, 72(4); 389-392.

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