Superhard Materials: Advances in the Search and Synthesis of New Materials Pangilinan, Lisa Hu, Shanlin Akopov, Georgiy Cabrera, Sabina Yeung, Michael Mohammadi, Reza Tolbert, Sarah Kaner, Richard
dc.contributor.department Ames Laboratory 2021-06-10T22:46:56.000 2021-08-14T01:36:42Z 2021-08-14T01:36:42Z 2022-03-26 2021-03-26
dc.description.abstract <p>Materials with superior hardness can be categorized as ultrahard (Vickers hardness, <em>H</em>v ≥ 80 GPa) and superhard (<em>H</em>v ≥ 40 GPa). These materials are commonly used as cutting tools and abrasives in the machining and manufacturing industries. With its extreme hardness, diamond is the best known and most used ultrahard material for industrial applications. However, it is ineffective at cutting and drilling ferrous alloys due to diamond's high reactivity with iron and poor thermal stability in air. Additionally, the synthesis of diamond requires both high pressure (HP) and high temperature, making it an expensive process. These limitations have driven the search for alternative superhard materials that are capable of cutting steels and other materials at lower costs. This article reviews the concept of hardness and summarizes advancements in the synthesis and mechanical properties of hard materials. It begins with a review of methods to measure hardness, adding HP diffraction methods to more conventional hardness measurements. It then considers new ultrahard materials that exist within the B–C–N ternary system, with hardness approaching diamond but improved chemical stability. Finally, it surveys superhard nitrides, oxides, and borides as potential alternative materials, focusing on transition metal boride systems where the synthesis can be readily achieved at ambient pressure and scaled for industrial applications. We hope that this article serves as an overview of hard materials and guide for the comparison of data reported in the literature.</p>
dc.identifier archive/
dc.identifier.articleid 1897
dc.identifier.contextkey 23298767
dc.identifier.s3bucket isulib-bepress-aws-west
dc.identifier.submissionpath ameslab_manuscripts/895
dc.language.iso en
dc.relation.ispartofseries IS-J 10466
dc.source.bitstream archive/|||Sat Jan 15 02:19:27 UTC 2022
dc.source.uri 10.1002/9781119951438.eibc2076.pub2
dc.subject.disciplines Materials Science and Engineering
dc.subject.keywords borides
dc.subject.keywords bulk modulus
dc.subject.keywords diamond
dc.subject.keywords hardness
dc.subject.keywords indentation
dc.subject.keywords superhard
dc.subject.keywords transition metals
dc.subject.keywords ultra-incompressible
dc.subject.keywords ultrahard
dc.title Superhard Materials: Advances in the Search and Synthesis of New Materials
dc.type article
dc.type.genre article
dspace.entity.type Publication
relation.isOrgUnitOfPublication 25913818-6714-4be5-89a6-f70c8facdf7e
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