A field trial comparing four oral nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on controlling cautery dehorning pain and stress in calves

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2021-03-02
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Stock, Matthew L.
Kleinhenz, Michael D.
Mazloom, Reza
Jaberi-Douraki, Majid
Barth, Laura A.
Van Engen, Nicholas K.
Voris, Erica A.
Coetzee, Johann F.
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Oxford University Press
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Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine
The mission of VDPAM is to educate current and future food animal veterinarians, population medicine scientists and stakeholders by increasing our understanding of issues that impact the health, productivity and well-being of food and fiber producing animals; developing innovative solutions for animal health and food safety; and providing the highest quality, most comprehensive clinical practice and diagnostic services. Our department is made up of highly trained specialists who span a wide range of veterinary disciplines and species interests. We have faculty of all ranks with expertise in diagnostics, medicine, surgery, pathology, microbiology, epidemiology, public health, and production medicine. Most have earned certification from specialty boards. Dozens of additional scientists and laboratory technicians support the research and service components of our department.
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Statistics

The Department of Statistics seeks to teach students in the theory and methodology of statistics and statistical analysis, preparing its students for entry-level work in business, industry, commerce, government, or academia.

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The Department of Statistics was formed in 1948, emerging from the functions performed at the Statistics Laboratory. Originally included in the College of Sciences and Humanities, in 1971 it became co-directed with the College of Agriculture.

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1948-present

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Biomedical Sciences

The Department of Biomedical Sciences aims to provide knowledge of anatomy and physiology in order to understand the mechanisms and treatment of animal diseases. Additionally, it seeks to teach the understanding of drug-action for rational drug-therapy, as well as toxicology, pharmacodynamics, and clinical drug administration.

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The Department of Biomedical Sciences was formed in 1999 as a merger of the Department of Veterinary Anatomy and the Department of Veterinary Physiology and Pharmacology.

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1999–present

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  • College of Veterinary Medicine (parent college)
  • Department of Veterinary Anatomy (predecessor, 1997)
  • Department of Veterinary Physiology and Pharmacology (predecessor, 1997)

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The purpose of this study was to compare the analgesic effect of four nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) administered as a single, standardized, oral dose in dairy calves at the time of cautery dehorning. The NSAIDs investigated have pharmacokinetic properties in cattle that produce persistent plasma concentrations that may provide prolonged analgesia with the added practicality of a simple administration regimen. One hundred and eighty-five Holstein calves aged approximately 50 d old were either sham dehorned (n = 31) or cautery dehorned following oral administration of carprofen (n = 31), firocoxib (n = 31), flunixin meglumine (n = 30), meloxicam (n = 31) or placebo (n = 31) in a randomized, controlled trial. A standard dose of 2.0 mg/kg was administered to all calves receiving an oral NSAID. All calves received local anesthesia prior to actual or sham dehorning. Cortisol concentrations, heart rate, mechanical nociception thresholds, ocular and dehorning area temperatures, and average daily gains were evaluated. A linear mixed-effects model with repeated measures was used for statistical analysis. Administration of oral meloxicam, flunixin meglumine, and firocoxib at 2.0 mg/kg resulted in decreased cortisol concentrations compared to placebo-treated controls for the first 24 h postdehorning (AUEC0–24) (P = 0.03). Moreover, firocoxib, flunixin meglumine, and meloxicam attenuated the maximum cortisol concentrations compared to placebo-treated calves (P = 0.04, P= 0.02). In calves treated with flunixin meglumine, cortisol concentrations was reduced at 4 h (P = 0.04) and 8 h (P = 0.02). In addition, analgesic administration was associated with changes in ocular and dehorning area temperature differences (P = 0.09). Carprofen and meloxicam reduced heart rates during the entire study period (P = 0.003). Although a treatment effect (P < 0.0001) was observed in the determination of mechanical nociception threshold among all treatment groups, meloxicam expressed marginally significant effects (P = 0.09) among NSAID treated groups dehorned. A single dose of oral meloxicam, flunixin meglumine, or firocoxib administered at 2.0 mg/kg reduced the acute stress response associated with cautery dehorning. However, carprofen administration was associated with increased cortisol concentrations and dehorning area temperatures for the initial 24 h. Given the changes in pain and stress outcome variables assessed in this study, NSAIDs should be administered at the time of dehorning.
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This is the version of record for the article Stock, Matthew L., Michael D. Kleinhenz, Reza Mazloom, Majid Jaberi-Douraki, Laura A. Barth, Nicholas K. Van Engen, Erica A. Voris, Chong Wang, and Johann F. Coetzee. "A field trial comparing four oral nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on controlling cautery dehorning pain and stress in calves." Translational Animal Science 5, no. 2 (2021): txab041. Available online at DOI: 10.1093/tas/txab041. Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0). Copyright 2021 The Author(s). Posted with permission.
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