Herbicide and Nitrate in Surface and Ground Water: Results from the Iowa Management Systems Evaluation Area

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2004-04-13
Authors
Moorman, Thomas
Hatfield, Jerry
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Kanwar, Rameshwar
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Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering

Since 1905, the Department of Agricultural Engineering, now the Department of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering (ABE), has been a leader in providing engineering solutions to agricultural problems in the United States and the world. The department’s original mission was to mechanize agriculture. That mission has evolved to encompass a global view of the entire food production system–the wise management of natural resources in the production, processing, storage, handling, and use of food fiber and other biological products.

History
In 1905 Agricultural Engineering was recognized as a subdivision of the Department of Agronomy, and in 1907 it was recognized as a unique department. It was renamed the Department of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering in 1990. The department merged with the Department of Industrial Education and Technology in 2004.

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1905–present

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  • Department of Agricultural Engineering (1907–1990)

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Abstract

Herbicides are transported through subsurface drainage to surface waters from corn-growing areas of the USA and Canada. Herbicide losses are highly variable, ranging between 0.01 to 10 g/ha. The magnitude of herbicide loss results from precipitation patterns, herbicide-soil interactions, and farming practices. This report reviews existing literature and presents new research concerning effects of farming practices on herbicide losses in drainage water. Conservation tillage practices which increase infiltration tend to increase herbicide losses. Increasing intensity of drainage and increased frequency and rate of herbicide use also increase herbicide losses. Banding lowers the application rate and reduces annual losses and average concentrations of atrazine compared to broadcast applications. Metolachlor losses were reduced by banding, but the effect was only statistically significant in continuous corn systems.

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This book chapter is from ACS Symposium Series 877 (2004): 235–248, doi:10.1021/bk-2004-0877.ch017.

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