Consumers' Negative Electronic Word of Mouth: Non-complainers, Bad-mouthers, Dissatisfied complainers, and Satisfied complainers
Current literature on negative electronic word of mouth (e-WOM) points out that spreading a dissatisfying purchase experience on the Internet is a public action, and it can occur without redress-seeking. Some consumers immediately turn to retailers' websites or review websites to post negative reviews without contacting the retailer to seek remedies, redress or restitution. However, it is necessary to encourage consumers to seek redress so that the retailers receive opportunities to address and solve the issues. Therefore, the purpose of the study is to identify factors influencing customers' redress-seeking and negative e-WOM behaviors. This study identified four types of dissatisfied consumers (i.e., non-complainers, bad-mouthers, dissatisfied complainers, and satisfied complainers) based on possible predictors (i.e., level of dissatisfaction, perceived likelihood of successful redress, perceived time effort and cost in seeking redress, brand switching cost) and compared and contrasted these consumer groups.