Anodic Interfacial Evolution in Extremely Fast Charged Lithium-Ion Batteries

Sarkar, Abhishek
Shrotriya, Pranav
Nlebedim, Ikenna C.
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American Chemical Society
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Ames Laboratory
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Mechanical Engineering
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Ames LaboratoryMechanical Engineering
Interfacial reaction mechanisms at the anode/separator interface play a central role in the performance and safety of lithium-ion batteries during fast charging. We report a mechanistic study on the evolution and interactions of the aging mechanisms at the anode/separator interface in lithium cobalt oxide/graphite pouch cells charged with variable charging rates (1–6C) over 10 cycles. In situ electrochemical measurements, including voltage relaxation, Coulombic efficiency, and direct current internal resistance, indicated an incremental lithium loss until the C rates were ≤5C. A substantial capacity fade is observed in the first few cycles of fast charging, but the magnitude of capacity fade progressively diminishes with the number of cycles, indicating a suppression in the lithium deposition mechanism. Post-mortem film thickness, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses were performed to elucidate the evolution of electrolyte decomposition, the solid–electrolyte interface (SEI), lithium plating, and film fracture mechanisms with C rate. XPS measurements confirmed an increasing lithium concentration in an SEI film with an increase in the C rate. SEM images showed a growth of dendritic lithium on the anode surface from 1C to 3C. Precrack formation leading to an interfacial film fracture was observed at higher C rates. A differential analysis of the discharge capacity indicated a possible two-phase delithiation from the anode and reduced cathodic lithiation due to lithium loss at high C rates.
This document is the unedited Author’s version of a Submitted Work that was subsequently accepted for publication in ACS Applied Energy Materials, copyright 2022 American Chemical Society after peer review.To access the final edited and published work see DOI: 10.1021/acsaem.1c03803. Posted with permission.