Predictive mean matching imputation in survey sampling
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Predictive mean matching imputation is popular for handling item nonresponse in survey sampling. In this article, we study the asymptotic properties of the predictive mean matching estimator of the pop- ulation mean. For variance estimation, the conventional bootstrap inference for matching estimators with fixed matches has been shown to be invalid due to the nonsmoothness nature of the matching estimator. We propose asymptotically valid replication variance estimation. The key strategy is to construct repli- cates of the estimator directly based on linear terms, instead of individual records of variables. Extension to nearest neighbor imputation is also discussed. A simulation study confirms that the new procedure provides valid variance estimation.
This is a pre-print made available through arxiv: https://arxiv.org/abs/1703.10256.