Graphene Microelectrodes for Real-Time Impedance Spectroscopy of Neural Cells

Date
2022-01-04
Authors
Niaraki, Amir
McNamara, Marilyn C.
Montazami, Reza
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American Chemical Society
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Mechanical Engineering
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Biomedical Sciences
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Ames Laboratory
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Bioeconomy Institute
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Mechanical EngineeringBiomedical SciencesAmes LaboratoryBioeconomy Institute
Abstract
Understanding the changes in the electrochemical properties of neural cells upon exposure to stress factors imparts vital information about the conditions prior to their death. This study presents a graphene-based biosensor for real-time monitoring of N27 rat dopaminergic neural cells which characterizes cell adhesion and cytotoxicity factors through impedance spectroscopy. The aim was to monitor the growth of the entire cell network via a nonmetallic flexible electrode array. Therefore, a water-based graphene solution was formulized as a conductive ink, 3D-printed into a flexible substrate through an electrohydrodynamic approach, resulting in electrodes with a conductivity of 6750 s/m. The presented high-throughput method enabled microscale monitoring of the entire cell network via the design of PDMS-based growth channels. The electrical resistance of the cell network was measured continuously along with their network density, constituting a mean density of 1890 cell/mm2 at full cell confluency. The results demonstrate the applicability of the impedance-based sensing of the cell network for rapid screening of the cytotoxic elements, and the real-time effect of UV exposure on dopaminergic neural cells was reported as an immediate application of the device.
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This document is the unedited Author’s version of a Submitted Work that was subsequently accepted for publication in ACS Applied Bio Materials, copyright © 2022 American Chemical Society after peer review. To access the final edited and published work see DOI: 10.1021/acsabm.1c00913. Posted with permission.
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Keywords
aqueous graphene, flexible biosensor, microelectrode array, dopaminergic neural cells, impedance spectroscopy
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