Emissions of Greenhouse Gases from a Typical Chinese Swine Farrowing Barn
Emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) from animal feeding operations to the atmosphere are of environmental importance and concerns because of their impact on global warming. Gaseous concentrations and emission rates (ERs) of animal facilities can be affected by the animal production stages, animal species, dietary nutrition, housing types, manure handling schemes, and environmental conditions. This article reports ERs of methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), and carbon dioxide (CO2) for a typical, naturally ventilated 24-crate swine farrowing barn located in suburban Beijing, China, that was monitored over one-year period. The measurements were made at bi-monthly intervals (i.e., six measurement episodes total), with each measurement episode covering three consecutive days. Gaseous concentrations were monitored at bi-hourly intervals throughout each 3-day measurement episode. The ventilation rate of the barn was estimated using the CO2 mass balance method. The GHG concentrations and ERs of the farrowing barn showed diurnal and seasonal variations. Specifically, the concentrations (monthly mean ±SD, mg m-3) ranged from 2.3 (±0.3) to 9.3 (±2) for CH4, from 0.6 (±0.02) to 1.2 (±0.16) for N2O, and from 1,370 (±163) to 11,100 (±950) for CO2, with the higher levels occurring in January and the lower levels in July. The specific ER ranged from 95.2 to 261.8 mg h-1 pig-1 for CH4, from 6.4 to 12.9 mg h-1 pig-1 for N2O, and from 122.9 to 127.3 g h-1 pig-1 for CO2. On the basis of per animal unit (1 AU = 500 kg live body mass), the average daily ERs of the farrowing barn were 9.6 ±3.6 g AU-1 d-1 for CH4, 0.54 ±0.15 g AU-1 d-1 for N2O, and 7.5±0.1 kg AU-1 d-1 for CO2. Results of the GHG ERs from this study differ markedly from the limited literature data collected primarily under European production systems and conditions. Results of the current study provide some baseline data on GHG ERs for swine farrowing operations, thus contributing to development or improvement of GHG emission inventory under the Chinese livestock production conditions.
This article is from Transactions of the ASABE 50, no. 3 (2007): 1037–1044.