Survey of the fatty acid composition of peanut (arachis hypogaea) germplasm and characterization of their epoxy and eicosenoic acids

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1997-10-01
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Hammond, Earl
Duvick, Daniel
Dodo, Hortense
Pittman, R.
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Wang, Tong
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Abstract

Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) plant introductions (732) were analyzed for fatty acid composition. Palmitate varied from 8.2 to 15.1%, stearate 1.1 to 7.2%, oleate 31.5 to 60.2%, linoleate 19.9 to 45.4%, arachidate 0.8 to 3.2%, eicosenoate 0.6 to 2.6%, behenate 1.8 to 5.4%, and lignocerate 0.5 to 2.5%. The eicosenoate was shown to be cis-11-eicosenoate. In addition, epoxy fatty acids were found in many plant introductions in percentages ranging as high as 2.5%. These were tentatively identified as chiefly 9,10-epoxy stearate and coronarate with smaller amounts of vernolate. The percentage of palmitate was shown to be correlated positively with linoleate and negatively with oleate, eicosenoate, and lignocerate. Stearate was highly correlated with arachidate and negatively with eicosenoate and lignocerate. Oleate and linoleate, the two major fatty acids, were negatively correlated. Arachidate was negatively correlated with eicosenoate, and eicosenoate was positively correlated with lignocerate. Behenate and lignocerate were positively correlated. Epoxy esters were positively correlated with palmitate and negatively with oleate. Segregation of the plant introductions by axis flower, growth habit, and pod types showed significant differences that reflected the same fatty acid groupings revealed by the correlations.

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This article is from Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society 74, no. 10 (1997): 1235–1239, doi:10.1007/s11746-997-0050-z.

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