Grain Cultivation and Its Association Problems: Overview of Ghana
Cereal carbohydrate has been the main fuel energy for running the human machine. Out of the 90% of the world’s calorific requirement, wheat, maize and rice alone provide half the calories consumed globally. Maize provides major source of calories in Ghana with averaged annual production of 1.5 million MT between 2007 and 2010, accounting for over 50% of total grain output. Rice production stands at 300,000 MT, about 30% of the total rice requirement, and ranked second in grain production. Sorghum, a ‘grass roots’ traditional crop largely grown by subsistence farmers mainly in the Guinea and Sudan savannah Zones under rain-fed conditions. Sorghum is ranked third in cereal production and per capita consumption is recently increasing with its industrial usage in beer brewing. Pearl millet domestication in northern Ghana dates back to about 1250 BC or 1459 BC. Wheat locally produced accounts for less than a tenth of total percent of available supply due hot climate not conducive for its cultivation. Per capita wheat consumption is about 12.5 kg. Grains are lost after harvest in sub-Saharan Africa with estimated value of USD 4 billion, which exceeds food aid received in recent decade and equates annual cereal imports to SSA. About 47% of USD 940 billion needed to eradicate hunger in SSA by 2050 will be required in postharvest sector. The objective of this paper was to review current literature on the major grains cultivated as staple crops, and grain losses experienced in Ghana.
This paper is from 2016 ASABE Annual International Meeting, Paper No. 162460504, pages 1-10 (doi: 10.13031/aim.20162460504). St. Joseph, Mich.: ASABE. Posted with permission.