Mitochondrial and Glycolytic Capacity of Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells Isolated From Diverse Poultry Genetic Lines: Optimization and Assessment

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2022-01-28
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Lamont, Susan
Bobeck, Elizabeth
Bobeck, Elizabeth A.
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Copyright © 2022 Meyer, Lamont and Bobeck
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Animal Science
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Animal Science
Abstract
Cellular metabolic preference is a culmination of environment, nutrition, genetics, and individual variation in poultry. The Seahorse XFe24 analyzer was used to generate foundational immune cellular metabolic data in layer, broiler, and legacy genetic strains using fresh chicken peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Baseline mitochondrial respiration [oxygen consumption rate (OCR)] and glycolytic activity [extracellular acidification rate (ECAR)] were determined in modern commercial laying hen (Bovans White) and broiler (Ross 308) lines, as well as the highly inbred lines of Iowa State University (L8, Fayoumi M-15.2, Spanish, Ghs-6), partially inbred broiler line, and advanced intercrosses of broiler by Fayoumi M-15.2 and broiler by Leghorn lines. Commercial broiler vs. Bovans layer and unvaccinated vs. vaccinated Bovans layer immune cell metabolic potential were compared following an in-assay pathway inhibitor challenge. Titrations consistently showed that optimal PBMC density in laying hens and broilers was 3 million cells per well monolayer. Assay media substrate titrations identified 25 mM glucose, 1 mM glutamine, and 1 mM sodium pyruvate as the optimal concentration for layer PBMCs. Pathway inhibitor injection titrations in Bovans layers and broilers showed that 0.5 μM carbonyl cyanide-4 phenylhydrazone (FCCP) and 1 μM oligomycin were optimal. Baseline OCR and ECAR were significantly affected by genetic line of bird (p < 0.05), with the dual-purpose, L8 inbred line showing the highest OCR (mean 680 pmol/min) and the partially inbred broiler line showing the greatest ECAR (mean 74 mpH/min). ECAR metabolic potential tended to be greater in modern layers than broilers (p < 0.10), indicating increased ability to utilize the glycolytic pathway to produce energy. OCR was significantly higher in vaccinated than unvaccinated hens (p < 0.05), while baseline ECAR values were significantly lower in vaccinated Bovans laying hens, showing increased oxidative capacity in activated immune cells. These baseline data indicate that different genetic strains of birds utilized the mitochondrial respiration pathway differently and that modern commercial lines may have reduced immune cell metabolic capacity compared with legacy lines due to intense selection for production traits. Furthermore, the Seahorse assay demonstrated the ability to detect differences in cellular metabolism between genetic lines and immune status of chickens.
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This article is published as Meyer MM, Lamont SJ and Bobeck EA (2022) Mitochondrial and Glycolytic Capacity of Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells Isolated From Diverse Poultry Genetic Lines: Optimization and Assessment. Front. Vet. Sci. 8:815878. doi: 10.3389/fvets.2021.815878. Posted with permission. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
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PBMC, cellular metabolism, glycolysis, mitochondrial respiration, genetic selection
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