Development of an instrument to measure the levels of Total Quality Management (TQM) implementation in manufacturing organizations
This study was conducted to develop a reliable instrument to measure employees' perceptions regarding the Total Quality Management (TQM) practices in manufacturing organizations. The Total Quality Management Profile (TQMP) was developed on a review of the literature and based on a panel of experts justifications and recommendations. Among the independent variables examined were different sizes of companies and different lengths of exposure to TQM;The findings of the study revealed that: (1) employees of medium companies have the most positive perceptions toward the current practices regarding continuous improvement efforts, (2) employees of small companies have the most positive perceptions toward current "leadership" practices, (3) employees with a longer exposure to TQM have less positive perceptions regarding current company practices toward the five aspects of TQM, and (4) employees with lower levels of exposure to TQM have less positive perceptions toward the current practices regarding continuous improvement efforts;In the vast majority of cases, there were no significant differences regarding perceived ideal TQM practices based on company size or length of exposure. Suggestions for future research of current practices included: (1) include organizations other than manufacturing, (2) use employee classification as an independent variable, (3) include highly recognized companies by adopting a quality improvement program, and (4) include different geographical areas.