Antimicrobial resistance, diversity and class-1 integrons among Salmonella serovars isolated from swine
The aim of this study was to determine frequency of antimicrobial resistance, identify and characterize multi-drug resistant Salmonella, determine genetic diversity and characterize class-! integrons. The frequency of resistance wasTe (85%), Am (47%), Pi (32%), Ax (23%), Cm (2 1 %), Gm (2%), Ce (2%) and TSx (I%). Two pentaresistant MDR phenotypes were predominant: AmCmStSuTe (36.2%) and AmKmStSuTe (44.6%). DNA fingerprinting revealed eight clusters of typhimurium and Copenhagen with less than 95% of fragment length identity. DT l 04 with StSu R-type, which carried only one class-1 integron of l .Ok b size, were also found from environmental samples. In addition, we identified class 1 integrons among uncommon serovars including Muenchen, Muenster, Worthington, and Bere. The genetic diversity and p resence of class-1 integrons among diverse serovars further imply the potentia l hazard and spread of multiresistant strains in Salmonella.