Regional Approach to Making Nitrogen Fertilizer Rate Decisions for Corn
Nitrogen fertilizer is one of the largest input costs for growing corn. Across the Corn Belt, N is typically the most yield-limiting nutrient. Facing record high N fertilizer prices and potential supply problems, producers are concerned about N fertilization rates. Soil fertility researchers and extension specialists from seven states across the Corn Belt (see list in acknowledgements section) have been discussing com N fertilization needs and evaluating N rate recommendation systems for approximately the past two years. These discussions could not have been timelier considering the current N fertilizer issues.
In recent years N recommendation systems have become more diverse across states in the Com Belt. Of particular significance has been the movement away from yield goal as a basis of N rate decisions in some states to other methods such as cropping system (Iowa) or soil specific yield potential (Wisconsin). Research from across the Com Belt has also been indicating that economic optimum N rate (EONR) does not vary according to yield level. At the same time, corn yields have been at historic high levels, leading to increases in yield goal. This has added to concerns that increasing yield-based N rates are often found to be substantially greater than EONR observed in N rate trials. Also, watersheds being targeted to receive incentive and cost share funds for N rate management sometimes cross state boundaries, which causes problems if suggested rates are not consistent. These issues have increased uncertainty regarding current N rate recommendations.
An outcome of the multi-state discussions has been development of a consistent approach for N rate guideline development that can be utilized on a regional basis. This does not necessarily mean that fertilizer N rates will be the same across states. Rather, there is a common approach to guideline development. Depending upon the research database, rates could be the same or quite different Another outcome of this approach has been an improved ability to evaluate the economic returns to N, and the ability to estimate the most profitable fertilizer N rates. This has become very valuable information for dealing with today's high N fertilizer prices and water quality issues.
This is a proceeding from Thirty-Fifth North Central Extension-Industry Soil Fertility Conference 21 (2005): 16. Posted with permission.