The influence of acetates on growth and yield of corn (Zea mays L.) and soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]
In 1979 and 1980, six experiments were conducted to study the effects of acetates on growth and yield of corn and soybean. Experiments 1 and 2 conducted under the growth-chamber condition to study the effects of methyl acetate (MEAC), ethyl acetate (ETAC), butyl acetate (BUAC) and sodium acetate (NAAC) when sprayed on corn seedlings at the 5 leaf stage on plant height (HT), leaf length (LL), and dry weight (DW). Experiments 3 to 6 were conducted under field conditions. In Experiment 3, MEAC, ETAC, BUAC, and NAAC were sprayed at the 4th, 8th, and 12th leaf stages of corn development to study the effect on height (HT), leaf width (LW), ears per plant (E/P), weight per ear (W/E) and grain yield (Y). In Experiment 4, the effects of MEAC, ETAC, and BUAC when sprayed at stages V(,3), R(,1) and R(,2.5) were studied on yield of soybean. Experiments 5 and 6 studied the effects of zinc acetate (ACA) and ammonium acetate (ACE) in anhydrous ammonia on components of yield of corn. In Experiment 5, ACA and ACE were premixed with anhydrous ammonia and injected into the soil before planting time. There were two planting dates using two methods at each date: (1) the planting was over the injected band, and (2) the planting was between the injected bands. In Experiment 6, ACA and ACE at different rates were premixed with anhydrous ammonia and injected into the soil as a sidedressing application at three stages of corn development (4th, 8th, and 12th leaf stages);Results of Experiments 1 and 2 showed that acetates enhance early vegetative growth and, in turn, more dry matter accumulated as compared with the control. In Experiment 3, the greatest effect of the acetates on vegetative size and grain yield of corn was obtained when the treatment was applied at the 4th leaf stage. Soybeans treated with acetates in Experment 4 during early vegetative growth yielded significantly more than when sprayed at the later stages. The active component was the acetate ion;Experiment 5 showed that seed yield increased because of an increase in ear weight. Best results were obtained when corn was planted over the ACA injection band soon after application. When ACA and ACE were sidedressed in Experiment 6, weight per ear progressively decreased with delay in application, confirming a greater response from the chemical applied at the early stage.