Characterization of a Novel Porcine Parvovirus Tentatively Designated PPV5

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2013-06-07
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Xiao, Chao-Ting
Jiang, Yong-Hou
Halbur, Patrick
Opriessnig, Tanja
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PLoS
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Giménez-Lirola, Luis
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Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine
The mission of VDPAM is to educate current and future food animal veterinarians, population medicine scientists and stakeholders by increasing our understanding of issues that impact the health, productivity and well-being of food and fiber producing animals; developing innovative solutions for animal health and food safety; and providing the highest quality, most comprehensive clinical practice and diagnostic services. Our department is made up of highly trained specialists who span a wide range of veterinary disciplines and species interests. We have faculty of all ranks with expertise in diagnostics, medicine, surgery, pathology, microbiology, epidemiology, public health, and production medicine. Most have earned certification from specialty boards. Dozens of additional scientists and laboratory technicians support the research and service components of our department.
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A new porcine parvovirus (PPV), provisionally designated as PPV5, was identified in U.S. pigs. Cloning and sequencing from a circular or head-to-tail concatemeric array revealed that the PPV5 possesses the typical genomic organization of parvoviruses with two major predicted open reading frames (ORF1 and ORF2), and is most closely related to PPV4 with overall genomic identities of 64.1–67.3%. The amino acid identities between PPV5 and PPV4 were 84.6%–85.1% for ORF1 and 54.0%–54.3% for ORF2. Unlike PPV4, but similar to bovine parvovirus 2 (BPV2), PPV5 lacks the additional ORF3 and has a much longer ORF2. Moreover, the amino acid sequences of ORF1 and ORF2 of BPV2 showed higher homologies to PPV5 than to PPV4. The conserved motifs of the Ca2+ binding loop (YXGXG) and the catalytic center (HDXXY) of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) were identified in VP1 (ORF2) of PPV5, as well as in BPV2, but were not present in PPV4. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that PPV5, PPV4 and BPV2 form a separate clade different from the genera Parvovirus and Bocavirus. Further epidemiologic investigations of PPV4 and PPV5 in U.S. pigs of different ages indicated a slightly higher prevalence for PPV5 (6.6%; 32/483) compared to PPV4 (4.1%; 20/483), with detection of concurrent PPV4 and PPV5 in 15.6% (7/45) of lungs of infected pigs. Evidence for potential vertical transmission or association with reproductive failure was minimal for both PPV4 and PPV5. The high similarity to PPV4 and the lack of ORF3 may suggest PPV5 is an intermediate of PPV4 during the evolution of parvoviruses in pigs.
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This article is published as Xiao, Chao-Ting, Luis G. Gimenez-Lirola, Yong-Hou Jiang, Patrick G. Halbur, and Tanja Opriessnig. "Characterization of a novel porcine parvovirus tentatively designated PPV5." PLoS ONE 8, no. 6 (2013): e65312. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0065312. Copyright 2013 Xiao et al. Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0). Posted with permission.
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