Phosphorus Recovery from Sewage Sludge Ash Based on Cradle-to-Cradle Approach—Mini-Review
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Civil, Construction and Environmental EngineeringAgricultural and Biosystems EngineeringFood Science and Human Nutrition
The wastewater treatment process generates large amounts of P-rich organic waste (sewage sludge (SS)). The direct application of SS in agriculture, being controversial, is gradually being replaced by incineration, leading to the concentration of both P and heavy metals in the solid residual-sewage sludge ash (SSA). The novel closed-loop, cradle-to-cradle (C2C) approach leads to maintaining P production at current levels and counteracts its depletion in the future. The aim of this review is the presentation of the implementation of the C2C approach for P recovery. The paper focuses on steps that comprise P C2C, starting from the SS properties, being a derivative of wastewater type and treatment processes, to SS pre-treatment and finally leading to certified P-fertilizers production from SSA by application thermochemical or wet chemical extraction technologies. Examples of SSA treatment technologies and the final products are provided. It has been summarized that future research should focus on the production of SSA-based fertilizers aligning with the C2C concept and determining its effect on the various agriculture and horticulture crops.
This article is published as Jama-Rodzeńska, Anna, Józef Sowiński, Jacek A. Koziel, and Andrzej Białowiec. "Phosphorus Recovery from Sewage Sludge Ash Based on Cradle-to-Cradle Approach—Mini-Review." Minerals 11, no. 9 (2021): 985. DOI: 10.3390/min11090985. Copyright 2021 by the authors. Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0). Posted with permission.
circular economy, wastewater treatment, resource recovery, sustainability, municipal waste, fertilizers, zero waste, thermochemical methods, wet chemical extraction, C2C