Reduction of Ammonia Emission from Stored Poultry Manure Using Additives: Zeolite, Al+clear, Ferix-3 and PLT
Manure storage can be a significant source of ammonia emission that impacts the environment. Ammonia emission from manure storage can be controlled by using physical, chemical and/or biological methods. Five treatment agents, including zeolite, liquid Al+Clear (aluminum sulfate), granular Al+Clear (aluminum sulfate), and granular Ferix-3 (ferric sulfate), and PLT (sodium hydrogen sulfate) were topically applied to stored fresh layer manure. Each agent was tested at three application rates, i.e., low, medium and high. Manure was stored in 19-litter Teflon-lined vessels under a constant ambient temperature of 23 oC with a constant airflow of 3 liter per minute. The ammonia concentrations and emissions from the vessels were measured and ammonia emission reductions by the treatment regimens were evaluated as compared to the control. Reduction of ammonia emission as a result of topical application of the tested manure treatment agents, when compared to the control, over a 7-day manure storage period was as following: A) 68%, 81% or 96%, respectively, for zeolite applied at 2.5%, 5% or 10% of the manure weight; B) 63%, 89%, or 94%, respectively, for liquid Al+Clear applied at 1, 2, or 4 kg m-2 of manure surface area; C) 81%, 93%, or 94%, respectively, for dry granular Al+Clear applied at 0.5, 1.0, or 1.5 kg m-2; D) 82%, 86%, or 87%, respectively, for Ferix-3 applied at 0.5, 1.0, or 1.5 kg m-2; and E) 74%, 90%, or 92%, respectively, for PLT applied at 0.5, 1.0, or 1.5 kg m-2.